The negotiations focused “primarily on car exports, tariffs on steel and aluminum, as well as the milk, egg and poultry markets.” A provision “prevents any party from enacting laws that restrict the cross-border flow of data.”  Compared to NAFTA, the USMCA increases environmental and labour standards and encourages domestic production of cars and trucks.  The agreement also provides up-to-date intellectual property protection, gives the U.S. more access to the Canadian milk market, imposes a quota for Canadian and Mexican auto production, and increases the customs limit for Canadians who purchase U.S. products online from $20 to $150.  The full list of differences between USMCA and ALEFTA is listed on the Website of the United States Trade Representative (USTR).  The USMCA will have an impact on the way Member States negotiate future free trade agreements. Section 32.10 requires USMCA countries to notify USMCA members three months in advance if they plan to enter into free trade negotiations with non-market economies. Article 32.10 authorizes USMCA countries to review new free trade agreements. It is generally speculated that Article 32.10 targets China. In fact, a senior White House official said of the USMCA agreement: “We were very concerned about China`s efforts to undermine the U.S. position by reaching agreements with others.”  U.S. dairy farmers will have new export opportunities to sell dairy products in Canada. Canada will provide new access to U.S. products, including liquid milk, cream, butter, skimmed milk powder, cheese and other dairy products. It will also eliminate its tariffs on whey and margarine. For poultry, Canada will provide new access to chickens and eggs in the United States and increase access for turkeys. Under a modernized agreement, all other tariffs on agricultural products traded between the United States and Mexico remain zero. Analysts agree that NAFTA has opened up new opportunities for small and medium-sized enterprises. Each year, Mexican consumers spend more on U.S.
products than their counterparts in Japan and Europe, which means the stakes are high for entrepreneurs. (Most NAFTA studies focus on the impact of U.S. affairs with Mexico. Trade with Canada has also been improved, but the passage of the trade agreement has not had such a significant impact on the already liberal trade practices that America and its northern neighbour have complied with.) The United States, Mexico and Canada have accepted non-discrimination and transparency obligations in sales and distribution, as well as labelling and certification provisions, to avoid technical barriers to trade in distilled wine and spirits. They agreed to continue to recognize bourbon whiskey, tennessee whiskey, tequila, mezcal and Canadian whiskey as distinctive products. The CUSMA results, signed on the sidelines of the G20 of Heads of State and Government in Buenos Aires in November 2018, preserve key elements of long-term trade relations and contain new and updated provisions to address 21st century trade issues and foster opportunities for the nearly half a billion people who call North America at home.