Although the agreement was welcomed by many, including French President François Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism also surfaced. For example, James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the deal is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud without “any action, only promises” and believes that only a cross-cutting tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris Agreement, would reduce CO2 emissions fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  Since the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, the Clean Development Mechanism [clarification needed] has been criticised for not leading in most cases to significant emission reductions or benefits for sustainable development.  It also suffered from low prices for certified emission reductions (RCEs), which led to lower demand for projects. This criticism has motivated the recommendations of various stakeholders who, through working groups and reports, have provided new elements that they hope to draw from MDS that will support its success.  Details of the governance structure, project proposal modalities and overall design should be provided at the 2016 Conference of the Parties in Marrakesh. [needs to be updated] The signs of this decisive moment are good, says Laurent Fabius. Biden`s election in the US means she will be linked to the EU and China to push for the full implementation of net-zero emissions. “We will have the conjunction of the planets that made the Paris Agreement possible,” Fabius told the Guardian. “Civil society, politics and business have come together for the Paris Agreement.
We are now looking at the same conjunction of the planets with the US, the EU, China, Japan – if the big ones go in the right direction, there will be a very strong incentive for all countries to go in the right direction. “Abandoning the Paris Agreement is cruel to future generations,” Andrew Steer, president and CEO of the World Resources Institute, said of the Trump administration`s decision to formally withdraw the United States from the agreement. The U.S. will lose jobs and a much stronger economy that will bring a low-carbon future, Steer said in a statement. Both the EU and its Member States are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. It has been widely reported that the EU and its 28 Member States deposit their instruments of ratification at the same time to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to fulfilling obligations that belong exclusively to each other, and there was concern that there would be disagreement on each Member State`s share of the EU-wide reduction target. as well as the UK`s vote to leave the EU could delay the Paris Pact.  However, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement on 4 October 2016 and the EU deposited its instruments of ratification on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  Net zero emissions means reducing emissions as much as possible and offsetting what remains by increasing carbon sinks, for example by growing trees or restoring wetlands and peatlands.