To contribute to the goals of the agreement, countries presented comprehensive national climate change plans (national fixed contributions, NDC). These are not yet sufficient to meet the agreed temperature targets, but the agreement points to the way forward for further measures. The EU and its member states are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. There was a strong preference for the EU and its 28 Member States to simultaneously table their ratification instruments to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to obligations that belong exclusively to the other and there was concern that there was a disagreement over each Member State`s share of the EU-wide reduction target. just as Britain`s vote to leave the EU could delay the Paris pact.  However, on 4 October 2016, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement and the EU tabled its ratification instruments on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  Following the adoption by the European Parliament next week, the EU will be able to table its ratification instrument before the completion of national ratification procedures in each Member State. The Paris Agreement has an “upward” structure unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top down”, characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives that states must implement.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legal commitment targets, the Paris Agreement, which focuses on consensual training, allows for voluntary and national objectives.  Specific climate targets are therefore politically promoted and not legally binding. Only the processes governing reporting and revision of these objectives are imposed by international law. This structure is particularly noteworthy for the United States – in the absence of legal mitigation or funding objectives, the agreement is seen as an “executive agreement, not a treaty.” Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty was approved by the Senate, this new agreement does not require further legislation from Congress for it to enter into force.
 Adaptation issues were at the forefront of the paris agreement. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must be accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, resilience and vulnerability limitation.  Although the United States and Turkey are not parties to the agreement, as countries have not indicated their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue, as Schedule 1 countries, to prepare national communications and an annual inventory of greenhouse gases.  European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker said: “Today`s decision shows that the European Union is keeping its promises. It shows that Member States can find common ground if it is clear that its effects as an integral part of the European Union are more important than the sum of their parts. I am pleased that the Member States have today decided to make history together and bring the first binding general agreement on climate change closer to the start of the force. We must and can give future generations a more stable world, a healthier planet, fairer societies and more prosperous economies.